Galvanic Series of Metals

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Galvanic corrosion occurs when a potential difference exists two different metals, which are in direct contact with each other, both of which are immersed in the same electrolyte. Referring to the galvanic series of metals shown below, each metal has a different and unique corrosion potential. By using the galvanic series of metals, it can be easily determined which metal will be cathodically polarized and which metal will be anodically polarized when galvanically coupled together in the presence of an electrolyte. The metal that is more active (less noble) will become anodic to a metal that is more passive (more noble). The anodic metal will corrode in preference to the more passive metal, which becomes cathodic. An example of this is the coupling of copper to steel in the HVAC piping in the barracks. The steel, being more active (less noble), becomes anodic to the copper, which is more passive, and becomes cathodic.

Voltage Range
Relative Position
Least Noble (More Anodic)
-1.60V to -1.67V
-1.00V to -1.07V
-0.93V to -0.98V
Aluminum Alloys
-0.76V to -0.99V
-0.66V to -0.71V
Mild Steel
-0.58V to -0.71V
Cast Iron
-0.58V to -0.71
Low Alloy Steel
-0.56V to -0.64V
Austenitic Cast Iron
-0.41V to -0.54V
Aluminum Bronze
-0.31V to -0.42V
Brass (Naval, Yellow, Red)
-0.31V to -0.40V
-0.31V to -0.34V
-0.31V to -0.40V
50/50 Lead/Time Solder
-0.29V to -0.37V
Admiralty Brass
-0.24V to -0.37V
Aluminum Brass
-0.24V to -0.37V
Manganese Bronze
-0.24V to -0.34V
Silicon Bronze
-0.24V to -0.30V
Stainless Steel (410, 416)
-0.24V to -0.37V
(-0.45V to -0.57V)
Nickel Silver
-0.24V to -0.30V
90/10 Copper/Nickel
-0.19V to -0.27V
80/20 Copper/Nickel
-0.19V to -0.24V
Stainless Steel (430)
-0.20V to -0.30V
(-0.45V to -0.57V)
-0.17V to -0.27V
70/30 Copper Nickel
-0.14V to -0.25V
Nickel Aluminum Bronze
-0.12V to -0.25V
Nickel Chromium Alloy 600
-0.09V to -0.15V
(-0.35V to -0.48V)
Nickel 200
-0.09V to -0.20V
-0.09V to -0.15V
Stainless Steel (302, 304, 321, 347)
-0.05V to -0.13V
(-0.45V to -0.57V)
Nickel Copper Alloys (400, K500)
-0.02V to -0.13V
Stainless Steel (316, 317)
0.00V to -0.10V
(-0.35V to -0.45V)
Alloy 20 Stainless Steel
0.04V to -0.12V
Nickel Iron Chromium Alloy 825
0.04V to -0.10V
0.04V to -0.12V
0.20V to 0.07V
0.20V to 0.07V
0.36V to 0.19V
Most Noble (More Cathodic)

Primary voltage range for material
Voltage range in crevices or stagnant and poorly aerated water

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Allied Corrosion Industries, Inc. is a full service corrosion control corporation providing design, installation and maintenance of corrosion solutions and cathodic protection systems since 1980. We are also a materials and test equipment provider, offering a full line of corrosion-related products.

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